Internet of things Winter 2022 GTU Paper Solution | 3171108

Here, We provide Internet of things GTU Paper Solution Winter 2022. Read the Full IOT GTU paper solution given below.

Internet of things GTU Old Paper Winter 2022 [Marks : 70] : Click Here

(a) Define Internet of Things. Briefly describe vision of IoT.

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the interconnected network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other items that are embedded with sensors, software, and connectivity, enabling them to collect and exchange data. The vision of IoT is to create an ecosystem of smart devices that can communicate with each other and with people to automate tasks, increase efficiency, and improve the quality of life. This vision includes the idea of creating intelligent environments that can learn from and adapt to their occupants’ behaviors, preferences, and needs, as well as improving health and safety, reducing waste and energy consumption, and enhancing transportation and logistics. In essence, the goal of IoT is to enable a more connected and automated world that improves human well-being and sustainability.

(b) What are the emerging trends in IoT? Explain briefly.

(c) Describe IoT architecture in detail with block diagram.

(a) Write names of protocols which are used in Application layer.

Some of the commonly used protocols in the application layer are:

  1. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
  2. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol)
  3. FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
  4. DNS (Domain Name System)
  5. SSH (Secure Shell)
  6. Telnet
  7. POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3)
  8. IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol)
  9. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)
  10. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
  11. SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
  12. XMPP (Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol)
  13. MQTT (Message Queuing Telemetry Transport)
  14. CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol)
  15. AMQP (Advanced Message Queuing Protocol)

(b) Explain Publish – Subscribe communication model.

(c) Describe characteristics of IoT in detail.

(c) With block diagram, explain various functional blocks in IOT.

(a) Write a python program for blinking LED on Raspberry Pi.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time

# Set up the GPIO pin for the LED
LED_PIN = 18

# Blink the LED on and off 5 times
for i in range(5):
    GPIO.output(LED_PIN, GPIO.HIGH)  # Turn the LED on
    time.sleep(1)                    # Wait for 1 second
    GPIO.output(LED_PIN, GPIO.LOW)   # Turn the LED off
    time.sleep(1)                    # Wait for 1 second

# Clean up the GPIO pin

In this program, we import the RPi.GPIO library to access the GPIO pins on the Raspberry Pi. We then set up the LED pin (in this example, pin 18) as an output using the GPIO.setup() function.

Next, we use a for loop to blink the LED on and off five times. Inside the loop, we set the output of the LED pin to GPIO.HIGH to turn the LED on, and then use the time.sleep() function to pause the program for 1 second. We then set the output of the LED pin to GPIO.LOW to turn the LED off, and wait for another second.

Finally, we use the GPIO.cleanup() function to reset the GPIO pin to its default state.

(b) Classify sensors. Give example of each.

(c) Explain interfaces available on Raspberry Pi board.


(a) Differentiate IOT and M2M.

IoT (Internet of Things) and M2M (Machine-to-Machine) are two terms that are often used interchangeably, but they are actually two distinct concepts.

IoT refers to a system of interconnected devices that can communicate with each other and with other systems over the internet. These devices are often equipped with sensors that can collect data and send it to other devices or systems for analysis and action. The primary goal of IoT is to create a network of devices that can work together to automate processes, improve efficiency, and enhance decision-making.

M2M, on the other hand, is a subset of IoT that focuses specifically on the direct communication between machines or devices without human intervention. M2M technology enables devices to exchange data with each other, analyze that data, and take action based on the results. This can lead to more efficient and automated processes, and can also enable new services and applications.

The main difference between IoT and M2M is that IoT is a more comprehensive concept that includes all devices and systems connected to the internet, while M2M is a specific subset of IoT that focuses on direct communication between machines or devices. Another way to think of it is that IoT is the bigger picture, while M2M is a specific use case within that bigger picture.

(b) Explain role of cloud computing in IoT.

(c) Explain MQTT, XMPP and AMQP protocols.

(a) Explain 802.16 – WiMAX with respect to IoT protocol.

802.16, also known as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access), is a wireless communication protocol that is used for providing high-speed internet access over long distances. WiMAX is a popular choice for IoT applications that require wireless connectivity over a wide area, such as smart city infrastructure, remote monitoring, and industrial automation.

Here are some of the key features of WiMAX that make it a suitable protocol for IoT applications:

  1. Wide coverage area: WiMAX can provide wireless connectivity over long distances, making it ideal for IoT applications that require connectivity over a wide area.
  2. High-speed data transfer: WiMAX supports high-speed data transfer, with speeds of up to 70 Mbps possible. This makes it suitable for applications that require the transfer of large amounts of data, such as video surveillance and remote monitoring.
  3. QoS support: WiMAX supports Quality of Service (QoS) functionality, which allows data traffic to be prioritized based on its importance. This is important for IoT applications that require real-time data transmission, such as industrial automation and smart city infrastructure.
  4. Security: WiMAX provides robust security features, including data encryption and authentication, to ensure the safety and privacy of data transmitted over the network.

(b) Compare REST based and WebSocket based APIs.

(c) With block diagram, explain IoT deployment level 3. Also give an
example of working of such system.


(a) Write short note on Network layer protocols.

The network layer is the third layer in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model and is responsible for the transmission of data between different networks. Network layer protocols provide the means for routing and forwarding data packets between different networks.

Here are some examples of network layer protocols:

  1. IP (Internet Protocol): IP is the primary network layer protocol used for communication between devices on the Internet. It is responsible for the addressing and routing of data packets between different networks.
  2. ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol): ICMP is a protocol used for error reporting and diagnostic functions in IP networks. It is used to report errors and status information to network administrators.
  3. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol): ARP is a protocol used to map an IP address to a physical MAC address on a local network. It is used to resolve the physical address of a device when communicating with it on a local network.
  4. OSPF (Open Shortest Path First): OSPF is a routing protocol used to determine the best path for data packets to travel between different networks. It is used in large enterprise networks and Internet Service Provider (ISP) networks.
  5. BGP (Border Gateway Protocol): BGP is a routing protocol used to connect different autonomous systems (AS) on the Internet. It is used to determine the best path for data packets to travel between different ASs.

(b) Write about any four sensors and their usages.

(c) Describe implementation of IoT with Edge devices.

(a) Give examples of commonly used actuators in IoT.

Actuators are devices that are used to control physical systems based on input from sensors or other sources. In IoT systems, actuators are used to control a wide range of systems and devices, such as motors, valves, and switches, based on data collected from sensors and other sources.

Here are some examples of commonly used actuators in IoT:

  1. Motors: Motors are commonly used as actuators in IoT systems, particularly in industrial settings where they are used to control the movement of machinery and equipment. For example, a motor might be used to control the movement of a conveyor belt in a manufacturing plant.
  2. Valves: Valves are used to control the flow of fluids or gases in a system. In IoT systems, valves may be used to regulate the flow of water or gas in a pipeline, or to control the flow of air in an HVAC system.
  3. Solenoids: Solenoids are devices that use an electromagnetic field to control the movement of a plunger or piston. They are commonly used as actuators in industrial settings to control the movement of valves, switches, and other devices.
  4. LED lights: LED lights can be used as actuators in IoT systems, particularly in smart lighting systems. By using sensors to detect changes in light levels or occupancy, the system can turn lights on or off automatically, or adjust their brightness based on the ambient light level.
  5. Electric locks: Electric locks can be used as actuators in IoT systems to control access to buildings or rooms. By using sensors to detect the presence of authorized personnel, the system can unlock doors automatically, or deny access to unauthorized individuals.

(b) Explain vulnerabilities in IoT.

(c) Enlist good practices for securing IoT systems.


(a) Write a short note on IoT devices for home automation.

IoT devices for home automation are becoming increasingly popular and affordable, providing users with a convenient and efficient way to control various aspects of their home, such as lighting, heating, security, and entertainment. These devices are typically connected to the internet and can be controlled using a smartphone app, voice commands, or other means.

Some examples of IoT devices for home automation include:

  1. Smart thermostats: Smart thermostats allow users to control their home heating and cooling systems remotely, adjust temperature settings based on their schedule or preferences, and receive alerts when the temperature is outside of a desired range.
  2. Smart lighting: Smart lighting allows users to control the lighting in their home remotely, adjust the brightness and color of lights, and create custom lighting schedules or scenes.
  3. Smart security systems: Smart security systems allow users to monitor their home security remotely, receive alerts when there is motion or activity, and view live or recorded video footage.
  4. Smart entertainment systems: Smart entertainment systems allow users to control their audio and video systems remotely, stream music or video content, and create custom playlists or channels.

(b) Define the roles of IoT in Health Care Monitoring.

(c) Explain major issues and challenges with IoT.

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