Professional Ethics Winter 2022 GTU Paper Solution | 3150709

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Professional Ethics GTU Old Paper Winter 2022 [Marks : 70] : Click Here

(a) Explain Ethics in short

Ethics refers to a set of moral principles or values that guide individuals or groups in determining what is right or wrong, good or bad, and just or unjust. It involves making decisions and taking actions based on principles that are considered morally acceptable and aligned with social norms.

Ethics encompasses various aspects of human behavior, including honesty, integrity, fairness, respect for others, responsibility, and compassion. It involves considering the impact of our actions on others and striving to do what is morally right, even when faced with difficult choices or conflicting interests.

Ethical behavior involves acting with transparency, accountability, and consistency, and treating others with fairness and dignity. It involves upholding moral standards and principles, being honest and trustworthy, and considering the welfare of others.

(b) Differentiate between Personal ethics and Business Ethics.

(c) Explain five qualities of successful professional.

(a) Explain Morality in short.

Morality refers to the principles, values, and beliefs that guide human behavior and distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad, or what is considered morally acceptable or unacceptable. It encompasses a system of moral judgments and standards that shape individual and societal conduct.

Morality influences how individuals make decisions, interact with others, and evaluate the consequences of their actions. It provides a framework for understanding and evaluating ethical dilemmas and helps individuals navigate complex moral choices.

Morality can be influenced by various factors, including cultural norms, religious beliefs, personal experiences, and philosophical perspectives. Different cultures and societies may have different moral codes and understandings of what is morally right or wrong.

While moral principles can vary among individuals, there are common values that are often considered fundamental to morality, such as honesty, integrity, fairness, compassion, respect for others, and the recognition of human rights.

(b) Differentiate between Morality and Law.

(c) What is the role of Manager in business? List and explain values of
Indian Manager.

(c) Swami Vivekananda’s thoughts on ethics are essentially practical and
based on normative ethics. Discuss.

(a) Explain Moral Philosophies.

Moral philosophies are theoretical frameworks or systems of thought that explore and analyze ethical principles, values, and concepts. They provide a philosophical basis for understanding morality and guide individuals in making moral judgments and decisions. Here are some key moral philosophies:

  1. Consequentialism: Consequentialist theories focus on the consequences or outcomes of actions to determine their moral value. The primary principle is to maximize overall happiness or utility and minimize harm. The most well-known consequentialist theory is utilitarianism, which states that actions should be judged based on their ability to produce the greatest amount of happiness or utility for the greatest number of people.
  2. Deontological Ethics: Deontological theories emphasize moral duties, obligations, and principles. They assert that certain actions are inherently right or wrong, regardless of their consequences. Deontologists often prioritize universal rules or principles, such as honesty, fairness, or respect for autonomy, and believe that these rules should guide moral decision-making, regardless of the consequences.
  3. Virtue Ethics: Virtue ethics focuses on the development of virtuous character traits or qualities in individuals. It emphasizes the importance of cultivating moral virtues, such as honesty, kindness, courage, and justice. Virtue ethicists believe that by embodying these virtues, individuals can make ethical decisions and lead a morally good life.
  4. Ethics of Care: The ethics of care emphasizes the importance of relationships, empathy, and compassion. It recognizes the moral significance of caring for others, particularly in close personal relationships or contexts of dependency. This approach emphasizes the moral responsibility to nurture and maintain caring relationships and prioritize the well-being of others.
  5. Ethical Relativism: Ethical relativism posits that ethical principles and judgments are relative to individual or cultural perspectives. It suggests that moral values and standards vary across different societies, cultures, or individuals. Ethical relativism rejects the notion of universal moral truths and emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting diverse moral viewpoints.

(b) What is Ethical Dilemmas? Explain with example.

(c) What do you mean by Quality of Working life? List and explain
affecting factors of on working life.


(a) What is unethical practice in Business? List and explain any 5 of them.

Unethical practices in business refer to behaviors or actions that violate ethical principles, moral standards, or legal regulations. Here are five examples of unethical practices in business:

  1. Fraud: Fraudulent practices involve intentionally deceiving others for personal or financial gain. This can include financial fraud, such as embezzlement or misappropriation of funds, or misrepresentation of information to deceive customers, investors, or stakeholders.
  2. Discrimination: Discrimination occurs when individuals are treated unfairly or disadvantaged based on characteristics such as race, gender, religion, age, or disability. This unethical practice undermines equal opportunities and violates principles of fairness and equality.
  3. Bribery and Corruption: Bribery involves offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting something of value to influence a business decision improperly. Corruption refers to the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain. Both bribery and corruption undermine transparency, fairness, and trust in business transactions and relationships.
  4. Exploitation of Labor: Unethical labor practices involve exploiting employees by paying unfair wages, violating labor laws, denying basic worker rights, or subjecting workers to unsafe or unhealthy working conditions. These practices disregard the well-being and dignity of workers.
  5. Environmental Violations: Engaging in activities that harm the environment, such as pollution, illegal disposal of hazardous waste, or unsustainable resource extraction, is an unethical business practice. Neglecting environmental responsibilities can have long-term negative consequences for ecosystems and communities.

(b) Differentiate between Values and Ethics.

(c) What is Ethical Decision Making process? List and explain at least 3
scenarios when it is required in business.

(a) How corporate culture will help to develop Ethical Environment in

Corporate culture plays a crucial role in developing an ethical environment within a company. It sets the tone for how employees and leaders behave, make decisions, and interact with one another. Here’s how corporate culture can contribute to the development of an ethical environment:

  1. Ethical Values and Code of Conduct: A strong corporate culture emphasizes and promotes ethical values. Companies can establish a code of conduct that outlines expected behaviors and ethical standards. This code serves as a guide for employees to make ethical decisions and fosters a shared understanding of what is considered acceptable conduct.
  2. Leadership and Role Modeling: Leaders play a critical role in shaping the ethical environment. When leaders demonstrate ethical behavior and consistently uphold ethical values, they set a positive example for employees to follow. Leaders should be transparent, honest, and accountable, creating a culture of trust and integrity.
  3. Open Communication and Transparency: A culture that encourages open communication and transparency fosters an ethical environment. Employees should feel comfortable expressing their concerns, reporting unethical behavior, and seeking guidance without fear of retaliation. This helps identify and address ethical issues promptly.
  4. Employee Empowerment and Accountability: Empowering employees and giving them a sense of ownership over their work can contribute to an ethical environment. When employees are involved in decision-making processes, they are more likely to consider ethical implications and take responsibility for their actions.
  5. Ethical Training and Education: Providing ongoing ethical training and education helps employees understand ethical principles, recognize ethical dilemmas, and develop ethical decision-making skills. It promotes awareness, understanding, and application of ethical values in daily business operations.
  6. Recognition and Rewards: Recognizing and rewarding ethical behavior reinforces the importance of ethics in the corporate culture. Companies can acknowledge employees who demonstrate ethical conduct, reinforcing the desired behaviors and fostering a culture that values integrity and ethical decision-making.
  7. Consistency and Accountability: Consistency in applying ethical standards and holding individuals accountable for unethical behavior are essential for developing an ethical environment. When employees observe that ethical violations are addressed promptly and consistently, it reinforces the importance of ethical conduct and discourages unethical behavior.

(b) What do you learn from Ethics of Gandhiji? How would you add that in
your life?

(c) Explain Honesty, Integrity and Transparency in Business.


(a) Define following terms: Utilitarianism, Virtue, Fairness and Justice.

  1. Utilitarianism: Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that focuses on the consequences or outcomes of actions. It asserts that the moral worth of an action is determined by its ability to maximize overall happiness or well-being for the greatest number of people. According to utilitarianism, the right action is the one that produces the greatest overall happiness or utility.
  2. Virtue: Virtue refers to a moral excellence or good character traits that individuals possess. Virtue ethics emphasizes the importance of cultivating virtuous qualities, such as honesty, courage, compassion, and integrity. It focuses on developing and embodying positive moral virtues as a means to lead a good and fulfilling life.
  3. Fairness: Fairness refers to the quality of being just, impartial, and equitable in treatment or distribution. It involves treating individuals and groups without bias or favoritism and ensuring equal opportunities and fairness in decision-making processes. Fairness requires considering the rights, needs, and interests of all parties involved and avoiding discrimination or unjust practices.
  4. Justice: Justice refers to the concept of fairness and equity in the distribution of resources, opportunities, and consequences. It involves upholding principles of fairness, equality, and impartiality in society. Justice seeks to ensure that individuals are treated justly, that their rights are protected, and that punishments and rewards are distributed proportionally and fairly.

(b) What do you learn from Ethics of Aurobindo? How would you add that
in your life?

(c) List and Explain sources of Ethical Behavior.

(a) What do you mean by Karma? Explain Law of Karma.

Karma is a concept that originated in Hinduism, Buddhism, and other Indian religions. It refers to the law of cause and effect, stating that every action has consequences. The term “karma” comes from the Sanskrit word meaning “action” or “deed.”

According to the Law of Karma, every action, thought, and intention generates energy that will eventually return to the individual in some form or another. It suggests that individuals are responsible for the consequences of their actions and that these consequences shape their present and future experiences.

Here are some key aspects of the Law of Karma:

  1. Action and Consequence: The Law of Karma states that every action, whether physical, verbal, or mental, produces an energy or force that will result in corresponding consequences. Positive actions generate positive energy, while negative actions produce negative energy. These consequences may manifest in the current lifetime or future lifetimes.
  2. Cause and Effect: Karma operates on the principle of cause and effect. Actions are considered causes, and the subsequent experiences or outcomes are the effects. Just as a seed sown in the ground will eventually grow into a plant, our actions plant seeds that will bear fruit in due time.
  3. Reincarnation and Samsara: The Law of Karma is closely connected to the belief in reincarnation, the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth. It suggests that the consequences of our actions may extend beyond our current lifetime and influence future rebirths. This cycle is known as Samsara.
  4. Moral Accountability: Karma implies moral accountability for one’s actions. It suggests that individuals are responsible for the ethical and moral consequences of their behavior. Positive actions, such as acts of kindness, honesty, and compassion, contribute to positive karma, while negative actions, such as harming others, lying, or acting out of greed, generate negative karma.
  5. Liberation and Freedom: The Law of Karma is not meant to be deterministic or fatalistic. It offers the opportunity for personal growth, transformation, and liberation from the cycle of suffering. By cultivating positive intentions, thoughts, and actions, individuals can accumulate positive karma and work towards spiritual evolution and liberation (moksha).

(b) What do you learn from Ethics of Tagore? How would you add that in
your life?

(c) Explain Ethical Decision Making. Explain Six-step decision making


(a) Explain “White Collar Crime” in Business with example.

White-collar crime refers to non-violent criminal activities that are typically committed by individuals in professional or business settings, often involving financial gain through deception, fraud, or unethical practices. Unlike street crimes that are more visible and involve physical harm, white-collar crimes are often carried out by individuals in positions of trust and authority.

Here are a few examples of white-collar crimes in business:

  1. Fraud: This involves intentional deception or misrepresentation for personal gain. Examples include financial statement fraud, where individuals manipulate financial records to deceive investors or stakeholders, or securities fraud, where false information is provided to manipulate stock prices.
  2. Embezzlement: Embezzlement occurs when individuals entrusted with financial responsibilities, such as employees or managers, misappropriate funds or assets for their personal use. This could involve siphoning off company funds into personal accounts or misusing company resources.
  3. Insider Trading: Insider trading involves trading stocks or securities based on non-public information that gives individuals an unfair advantage. For example, if an executive of a company trades stocks based on confidential information about a forthcoming merger, it is considered insider trading and is illegal.
  4. Money Laundering: Money laundering is the process of disguising the origins of illegally obtained money to make it appear legitimate. Criminals may use businesses or financial institutions to “clean” the money, making it difficult to trace its illegal origins.
  5. Bribery and Corruption: Bribery involves offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting something of value to influence the actions or decisions of an individual in a position of power or authority. Corruption refers to the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain. These practices undermine fairness, transparency, and the proper functioning of business and government institutions.

(b) Differentiate between Ethics and Philosophy.

(c) Explain Kohlberg’s Model of Cognitive.

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