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**(a) Explain Turing test.**

- The Turing test is a method of
**inquiry in artificial intelligence (AI) to determine whether or not a computer is capable of thinking like a human**

- It was proposed in 1950 by the British mathematician and computer scientist
**Alan Turing.**This test is based on the idea that if a machine can communicate with a human in a way that is convincing enough to fool a human into thinking it is also talking to another. A human being, then a machine can be said to have human-like intelligence.

- The Turing Test involves a human evaluator communicating with two entities, one of which is a
**machine**and the other a**human**. The evaluator interacts with both entities without knowing which is machine and which is human.

- If the evaluator cannot reliably distinguish between a machine and a human in terms of answers to questions and normal conversation, the machine is said to pass the
**Turing test**. The Turing Test is still widely used today as a benchmark to measure the progress of artificial intelligence research. Although it has been criticized for its limitations and the fact that passing a test does not necessarily indicate true intelligence, it remains a popular and influential concept in the field of AI.

**(b) What is production system? Discuss the component of production system.**

A production system is a **computer program** that automates the decision-making process for producing output from given inputs. It is a type of** artificial intelligence** system that works by applying a set of rules to input data to generate an output.

The production system consists of three main components: a **knowledge base, an inference engine, and a working memory**.

**Knowledge Base:**This component of the production system contains**information**about the domain in which the system operates. It is a**collection of facts and rules**that are used by the inference engine to make decisions.

**Inference Engine:**The inference engine is responsible for processing the information stored in the knowledge base to generate output. It applies the rules and logic contained in the knowledge base to the input data in order to make decisions.

**Working Memory:**The working memory component of the production system is a temporary storage area that holds the current state of the system. It stores the input data, the intermediate results of the inference engine, and the output generated by the system.

**(c) What is artificial intelligence? Explain application of AI.**

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a **branch of computer science **that focuses on creating machines and software that can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI systems are designed to simulate human thought processes and abilities, such as perception, reasoning, learning, and decision-making. AI encompasses a wide range of technologies, including machine learning, natural language processing, computer vision, robotics, and more.

There are many applications of AI across a wide range of industries, including:

**Healthcare:**AI is used to help diagnose diseases, develop new treatments, and improve patient outcomes.

**Finance:**AI is used in fraud detection, risk assessment, and automated trading systems.

**Manufacturing:**AI is used in quality control, predictive maintenance, and process optimization.

**Transportation:**AI is used in self-driving cars, traffic management systems, and logistics optimization.

**Customer service:**AI is used in chatbots, virtual assistants, and other customer support applications.

**Education:**AI is used in intelligent tutoring systems, personalized learning, and educational analytics.

**Entertainment:**AI is used in recommendation systems for movies, music, and other media.

**Agriculture:**AI is used in precision farming, crop monitoring, and predictive analytics for yield optimization.

**(a) Write an algorithm for the breadth first search.**

Breadth-first search (BFS) is an algorithm used** to traverse or search a tree or graph** data structure. The algorithm starts at the root node (or any other node) and explores all the neighbor nodes at the present depth before moving on to the next depth level.

Here is the algorithm for BFS:

- Create a queue and add the starting node to it. - Initialize a boolean array to keep track of visited nodes, and mark the starting node as visited. - While the queue is not empty: - Remove the first node from the queue and examine it. - For each neighbor of the examined node that has not been visited: - Add the neighbor to the queue. - Mark the neighbor as visited. - Continue the loop until the queue is empty.

**(b) Why hill climbing is better than generate and test? Write algorithm forsimple hill climbing.**

Hill climbing is a **heuristic search algorithm** used for solving optimization problems. It is often more efficient than the generate and test approach because it does not generate all possible solutions before evaluating them.

Instead, it starts with a random solution and iteratively improves it by making small changes and evaluating the resulting solutions until no further improvements can be made.

Here is a simple algorithm for hill climbing:

**(c) Explain the state space search with the use of 8 Puzzle Problem**

**(c) Explain AI Problem characteristics in detail.**

AI (Artificial Intelligence) problems can be broadly characterized based on several key characteristics, which are discussed below:

**Objective:**AI problems are designed to achieve a particular objective or goal. This objective can be in the form of finding the best solution to a problem or making a decision based on available information.

**Search Space:**The search space for an AI problem is the set of all possible states that the problem can take. The size and complexity of the search space can vary depending on the problem, and the quality of the solution depends on the ability of the AI algorithm to explore this space effectively.

**Constraints:**Constraints are the limitations or conditions that need to be satisfied in order to solve an AI problem. These constraints can be in the form of resource limitations, time constraints, or other constraints specific to the problem being solved.

**Uncertainty:**Many AI problems involve uncertainty or incomplete information. This means that the AI algorithm needs to be able to handle situations where not all information is available or where the information available is not entirely accurate.

**Complexity:**AI problems can be very complex, requiring sophisticated algorithms and computational resources to solve. The complexity can arise from the size of the search space, the number of constraints, and the amount of uncertainty in the problem.

**Optimality:**AI problems can be designed to find the best solution, which is the optimal solution that satisfies all constraints and achieves the objective. However, in some cases, finding the optimal solution may be computationally infeasible, and the AI algorithm may need to settle for a suboptimal solution.

**Learning:**Many AI problems involve learning, which means that the AI algorithm needs to be able to adapt and improve its performance over time based on feedback and new information.

**(a) What is heuristic search? Discuss with an example.**

- Heuristic search is a type of search algorithm that uses a
**heuristic function**to estimate the cost of reaching a goal state from a given state.

- The heuristic function is a function that
**evaluates how close a given state is to the goal state based on some measure of distance or similarity**. By using this function to guide the search, heuristic search algorithms can often find solutions more efficiently than uninformed search algorithms, such as breadth-first or depth-first search.

- One example of heuristic search is the A* algorithm, which is widely used in pathfinding and route planning problems.

- The A* algorithm evaluates each state based on two factors: the actual cost of getting to that state from the initial state and the estimated cost of reaching the goal state from that state, as given by the heuristic function. The algorithm then selects the state with the lowest combined cost for expansion, and continues to expand states until the goal state is reached.

**(b) Explain Problem Reduction using “AND-OR” graph.**

Problem reduction is a technique used in AI problem solving to **break down a complex problem into smaller**, more manageable sub-problems.

One approach to problem reduction is to represent the problem as an AND-OR graph, which shows the relationships between **different sub-problems and how they must be solved to reach a solution**.

An AND-OR graph consists of two types of nodes: AND nodes and OR nodes. An **AND node represents a sub-problem** that can be decomposed into a set of sub-problems, all of which must be solved to solve the original problem. An **OR node represents a choice between two or more sub-problems**, only one of which needs to be solved to solve the original problem.

Problem: To plan a trip from city A to city D, subject to the following constraints:

- The trip must pass through city B or city C.
- The trip must not exceed a total distance of 500 miles.

The problem can be represented as an AND-OR graph as follows:

- Start node: Represents the start of the problem.
**AND node 1:**Represents the sub-problem of choosing a route from A to either B or C.**OR node 1:**Represents the choice between two sub-problems: a route from B to D or a route from C to D.**AND node 2:**Represents the sub-problem of finding a route from A to D that passes through B.**AND node 3:**Represents the sub-problem of finding a route from A to D that passes through C.

The edges between the nodes represent the relationships between the sub-problems. For example, the edge between the start node and AND node 1 indicates that the problem starts with the sub-problem of choosing a route from A to either B or C.

The edge between AND node 1 and OR node 1 indicates that both sub-problems of finding a route from A to D that passes through B and finding a route from A to D that passes through C need to be considered to solve the original problem.

**(c) What do you mean by constraint satisfaction problems? Explain constraintpropagation algorithm using suitable example.**

Constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) are a class of problems where the goal is** to find a solution that satisfies a set of constraints.** A CSP is defined by a set of variables, a set of domains for each variable, and a set of constraints that limit the possible combinations of values for the variables.

Constraint propagation is a technique used to solve CSPs that involves propagating constraints to eliminate values from the domains of variables, which can help to reduce the search space and find solutions more efficiently.

The basic idea of constraint propagation is to use the existing constraints to derive new constraints that are more restrictive. For example, suppose we have a CSP that involves three variables: A, B, and C. The domains for each variable are as follows:

- A: {1, 2, 3}
- B: {1, 2}
- C: {2, 3}

Suppose we also have two constraints:

- A > B
- B > C

By applying these constraints, we can derive a new constraint:

- A > C

This new constraint tells us that the value of C must be less than the value of A. We can use this constraint to eliminate values from the domain of C. Specifically, since the domain of C is {2, 3}, and we know that C must be less than A, which has a domain of {1, 2, 3}, we can eliminate the value 3 from the domain of C.

This process of deriving new constraints from existing constraints and using them to eliminate values from domains is called constraint propagation. The resulting reduced domains can help to reduce the search space and make it easier to find a solution to the CSP.

A more general constraint propagation algorithm involves the following steps:

- Step 1: Initialize the domains for each variable based on the problem constraints.

- Step 2: While there are still unassigned variables:

a. Choose an unassigned variable.

b. For each value in the variable’s domain:

i. Assign the value to the variable.

ii. Apply constraint propagation to eliminate values from the domains of other variables.

iii. If all variables are assigned, return the solution.

iv. Otherwise, recurse to the next variable.

c. Unassign the variable and backtrack if no value in the domain leads to a solution.

**(a) Differentiate procedural and declarative knowledge.**

S.NO | Procedural Knowledge | Declarative Knowledge |
---|---|---|

1. | It is also known as Interpretive knowledge. | It is also known as Descriptive knowledge. |

2. | Procedural Knowledge means how a particular thing can be accomplished. | While Declarative Knowledge means basic knowledge about something. |

3. | Procedural Knowledge is generally not used means it is not more popular. | Declarative Knowledge is more popular. |

4. | Procedural Knowledge can’t be easily communicate. | Declarative Knowledge can be easily communicate. |

5. | Procedural Knowledge is generally process oriented in nature. | Declarative Knowledge is data oriented in nature. |

6. | In Procedural Knowledge debugging and validation is not easy. | In Declarative Knowledge debugging and validation is easy. |

7. | Procedural Knowledge is less effective in competitive programming. | Declarative Knowledge is more effective in competitive programming. |

**(b) Write a short note on non monotonic reasoning.**

Non-monotonic reasoning is a type of reasoning where **the truth of a statement can be revised or updated based on new information or evidence**, and where conclusions can be uncertain or even contradicted by further information.

In other words, non-monotonic reasoning allows for the possibility of changing one’s mind in light of new evidence. This is in contrast to monotonic reasoning, where the addition of new information only strengthens or confirms existing conclusions.

An **example **of non-monotonic reasoning is the “bird” and “penguin” scenario. If we start with the assumption that

- all birds can fly

and then we are told about a penguin, we might conclude that the penguin can fly. However, if we then learn that penguins cannot fly, we would need to revise our original conclusion about the penguin, even though it contradicts our earlier assumption.

Non-monotonic reasoning is particularly useful in situations where the available information is incomplete, ambiguous, or subject to change. It is widely used in fields such as artificial intelligence, expert systems, and knowledge representation.

**(c) Write and explain algorithm for resolution in propositional logic withsuitable example.**

Resolution is a fundamental inference rule used in propositional logic to derive new statements from existing statements. The algorithm for resolution in propositional logic involves the following steps:

- Conversion of facts into first-order logic.
- Convert FOL statements into CNF
- Negate the statement which needs to prove (proof by contradiction)
- Draw resolution graph (unification).

**(a) Explain forward and backward reasoning.**

Forward reasoning and backward reasoning are two methods of logical inference used in artificial intelligence and expert systems.

**Forwad Reasoning**

Forward reasoning, also known as **data-driven reasoning**, starts with the available data or facts and uses logical rules and deductions to derive new conclusions or predictions.

This method is often used in rule-based systems, where a set of rules or conditions are applied to a set of facts to derive new facts or conclusions.

For **example**, in a medical diagnosis system, forward reasoning would involve applying a set of rules to a patient’s symptoms to derive a possible diagnosis.

**Backward Reasoning**

Backward reasoning, also known as **goal-driven reasoning**, starts with a goal or hypothesis and works backwards to find the data or facts that support it.

This method is often used in diagnostic and planning systems, where the goal is to find a solution or explanation for a problem.

For **example**, in a fault diagnosis system, backward reasoning would involve starting with the symptom of a faulty machine and working backwards to find the cause of the problem.

**(b) Demonstrate the use of Repeat Predicate in Prolog with example.**

In Prolog, the Repeat predicate is used to create an infinite loop that repeats a given goal until it is terminated by another predicate or a manual interrupt. It is often used in conjunction with other predicates to create iterative processes or to simulate loops in a procedural programming style.

Here is an example of using the Repeat predicate in Prolog:

```
count_to_n(N) :-
repeat,
write(N), nl,
N1 is N - 1,
N1 >= 0,
!,
fail.
```

In this example, the `count_to_n`

predicate takes an integer `N`

as input and uses the Repeat predicate to count down from `N`

to 0. The `write(N), nl`

statement writes the value of `N`

to the console followed by a new line character. The `N1 is N - 1`

statement subtracts 1 from `N`

to get the next value to be printed. The `N1 >= 0`

statement checks if the value of `N1`

is greater than or equal to 0, which is the termination condition for the loop. The `!`

statement is a cut operator that forces Prolog to backtrack and fail, which terminates the loop when the condition is met. The `fail`

statement then causes the loop to repeat from the beginning.

```
?- count_to_n(5).
5
4
3
2
1
0
false.
```

**(c) Explain the various method of knowledge representation with suitableexample.**

**Logic-based representation: **

This method represents knowledge using formal logic, such as propositional logic, first-order logic, or modal logic. Logical representation is useful for representing knowledge that involves deductive reasoning, such as mathematical proofs or expert systems.

For example, the statement “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal” can be represented using first-order logic as “∀x (man(x) → mortal(x)), man(Socrates) ⊢ mortal(Socrates)”.

**Semantic networks:**

This method represents knowledge using nodes and arcs to represent concepts and their relationships. Semantic networks are useful for representing knowledge that involves associative or relational reasoning, such as hierarchical classifications or taxonomies.

For example, a semantic network representing the animal kingdom might have nodes for “Mammals”, “Reptiles”, and “Birds”, with arcs connecting each node to its subcategories, such as “Dogs”, “Cats”, and “Humans” for the “Mammals” node.

**Frames: **

This method represents knowledge using a set of attributes and their values to describe objects or concepts. Frames are useful for representing knowledge that involves inheritance and default reasoning, such as natural language understanding or expert systems.

For example, a frame representing a car might have attributes such as “Make”, “Model”, “Color”, and “Year”, with values such as “Toyota”, “Camry”, “Red”, and “2019”.

**Rule-based representation:**

This method represents knowledge using a set of rules or conditions and their conclusions or actions. Rule-based representation is useful for representing knowledge that involves heuristic or uncertain reasoning, such as decision-making systems or diagnosis systems. For example, a rule-based system for diagnosing medical conditions might have a rule such as “If the patient has a fever and cough, then diagnose them with pneumonia and prescribe antibiotics”.

**(a) Briefly explain perceptron.**

Perceptron is a type of artificial neural network that is used for **supervised learning of binary classifiers**.

A perceptron consists of **a single layer of neurons**, each of which receives input signals, performs a weighted sum of those inputs, and applies an activation function to produce an output. The output of each neuron is a binary value, either 0 or 1, representing the predicted class label for the input data.

During training, the perceptron adjusts the weights of its connections based on the error between the predicted output and the actual output.

The weight update rule is a form of stochastic gradient descent that adjusts the weights in the direction that reduces the error.

This process continues iteratively until the weights converge to a set of values that produce accurate predictions for the training data.

**(b) Explain morphological and syntax analysis phases of NLP.**

**Morphological analysis: **

Morphology is the study of the structure of words and their component parts. Morphological analysis in NLP involves breaking down words into their constituent morphemes, which are the smallest units of meaning in a language.

The goal of morphological analysis is to identify the root form of a word, along with any prefixes, suffixes, or inflectional endings that modify its meaning.

- For example, consider the word
`"unhappily".`The root form is`"happy"`, with the prefix`"un-"`indicating negation, and the suffix`"-ly"`indicating manner.

By analyzing the morphology of words in a sentence, NLP systems can perform tasks such as stemming (reducing words to their base form), lemmatization (reducing words to their dictionary form), and part-of-speech tagging (assigning a grammatical category to each word).

**Syntax analysis:**

Syntax is the study of the rules governing the structure of sentences and phrases in a language. Syntax analysis in NLP involves parsing a sentence to identify its grammatical structure and relationships between words.

The goal of syntax analysis is to create a parse tree, which represents the hierarchical structure of a sentence in terms of its constituent parts (e.g., phrases, clauses, and words).

- For example, consider the sentence
`"The cat sat on the mat"`. A parse tree for this sentence would show that`"the cat"`is a noun phrase,`"sat"`is a verb, “on the mat” is a prepositional phrase, and the whole sentence is a declarative clause.

By analyzing the syntax of a sentence, NLP systems can perform tasks such as sentence boundary detection, named entity recognition (identifying proper nouns), and dependency parsing (identifying the relationships between words in a sentence).

**(c) Explain the architecture of expert system with suitable sketch.**

**(a) Explain Probability and Bay’s Theorem.**

Probability theory is a branch of mathematics that deals with the analysis of random phenomena. It provides a way of quantifying the **uncertainty associated with events and enables us to make informed decisions based on the likelihood of different outcomes**.

Bayes’ theorem is a fundamental principle in probability theory that describes how to update our beliefs about the probability of an event based on new evidence. It is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, an 18th-century statistician who first formulated the theorem.

Bayes’ theorem states that the probability of an event A given evidence B is equal to the probability of evidence B given event A multiplied by the prior probability of event A, divided by the overall probability of evidence B:

P(A|B) = P(B|A) * P(A) / P(B)

where:

- P(A|B) is the posterior probability of event A given evidence B
- P(B|A) is the likelihood of observing evidence B given event A
- P(A) is the prior probability of event A
- P(B) is the overall probability of observing evidence B

**(b) Explain the components of planning system.**

A planning system is a set of components that work together to generate plans, which are sequences of actions aimed at achieving a desired goal. The following are the key components of a planning system:

**Representation Language:**A representation language is used to describe the domain in which planning takes place. It defines the vocabulary and syntax used to express the planning problem, including the objects, actions, goals, and constraints that are relevant to the domain.

**Domain Model:**A domain model specifies the rules and constraints that govern the behavior of the objects and actions in the domain. It defines the preconditions and effects of actions, as well as any constraints that must be satisfied to achieve the goals.

**Search Algorithm:**A search algorithm is used to explore the space of possible plans and find a solution that satisfies the goals and constraints. Different search algorithms use different strategies for generating and evaluating candidate plans, such as depth-first search, breadth-first search, heuristic search, or constraint propagation.

**Heuristics:**Heuristics are problem-solving strategies that help guide the search process and make it more efficient. They can be used to prioritize the exploration of promising paths and avoid exploring unpromising ones. Examples of heuristics include goal regression, where the planner recursively breaks down the goal into sub-goals, and causal link analysis, where the planner identifies and resolves causal dependencies between actions.

**Plan Representation:**A plan representation defines how the plan is represented and communicated to the user or the system that will execute it. Plans can be represented as sequences of actions, as hierarchical structures, or as formal languages that describe the plan in a machine-readable format.

**Plan Execution:**Plan execution is the process of carrying out the actions specified in the plan in order to achieve the desired goal. It requires monitoring the state of the environment and the progress of the plan, as well as handling unexpected events and adapting the plan as necessary.

**(c) Explain the MiniMax search procedure for Game Playing. Also explainalpha and Beta cut-offs to improve the performance of MinMax procedure.**

**(a) Explain supervised and unsupervised learning.**

**Supervised Learning**

- Supervised learning involves
**training a model on labeled data**. In supervised learning, the algorithm learns to map inputs to outputs based on example input-output pairs provided in the training data.

- The goal of supervised learning is to learn a function that can accurately predict the output for new, unseen inputs.

- For example, in a supervised learning problem of
**image classification**, the algorithm is provided with a large dataset of images that are already labeled with the correct class. The algorithm learns to map the features in the images to the correct class labels, and can then be used to classify new, unseen images.

- Some common examples of supervised learning algorithms include
**linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, and neural networks**.

**Unsupervised Learning**

- Unsupervised learning, on the other hand, involves training a model on unlabeled data. In unsupervised learning, the algorithm is not provided with any explicit feedback or labels. Instead, the algorithm must identify patterns, structure, and relationships in the data on its own.

- For example, in an unsupervised learning
**problem of clustering**, the algorithm is provided with a dataset of unlabeled data points and tasked with grouping similar data points together into clusters.

- Some common examples of unsupervised learning algorithms include clustering algorithms (such as k-means and hierarchical clustering), principal component analysis (PCA), and generative models (such as autoencoders and variational autoencoders).

- While supervised learning is typically used in tasks such as
**classification and regression**, unsupervised learning is often used for tasks such as anomaly detection, data compression, and exploratory data analysis.

**(b) Explain about the basic operators in genetic algorithms.**

To perform these operations, several basic operators are used in genetic algorithms. These operators include:

**Selection: **

The selection operator chooses the fittest individuals from the population to be the parents of the next generation. The individuals with the highest fitness scores are more likely to be chosen.

There are three types of method for in selection.

- Roulette wheel selection
- Tournament selection
- Rank-based selection

**Crossover:**

Crossover involves combining the genetic material of two parent individuals to create one or more offspring. This process typically involves selecting a random crossover point along the length of each parent chromosome and swapping the genetic material beyond that point. This creates offspring that inherit some characteristics from each parent.

There are serval types of crossover method

- One point crossover
- Two-point crossover

**Mutation: **

Mutation introduces small random changes to the genetic material of an individual. This helps to introduce diversity into the population and prevent premature convergence. Mutation is usually applied to only a small percentage of the population.

There are serval types of mutation method

- Flip bit mutation
- Gaussian mutation
- Exchange/Swap mutation

**(c) Write following prolog programs:1) To find factorial of a given number.2) To find the nth element of a given list.**

- Prolog program to find factorial of a given number:

factorial(0, 1). factorial(N, F) :- N > 0, N1 is N - 1, factorial(N1, F1), F is N * F1.

`?- factorial(5, F).F = 120.`

2. Prolog program to find the nth element of a given list:

nth_element(0, [H|_], H). nth_element(N, [|T], X) :- N > 0, N1 is N - 1, nth_element(N1, T, X).

`?- nth_element(2, [a, b, c, d], X).X = c.`

**Read More : **DS GTU Paper Solution Winter 2021

**Read More : **DBMS GTU Paper Solution Winter 2020

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