# PPS GTU Paper Solution Summer 2022 | 311003

Here, We provide PPS GTU Paper Solution Summer 2022. Read the Full Programming For Problem Solving gtu paper solution given below.

`PPS GTU Old Paper Summer 2022 [Marks : 70] : Click Here `

Define: Compiler
Justify, 2 and ‘2’ both are not same in C language.
What is the role of sizeof operator in C language?

###### Definition of Compiler

A compiler is a software program that takes source code written in a high-level programming language and converts it into machine code that can be executed by a computer.

###### Justification:

In the C programming language, the number 2 is an integer constant, while the string “2” is a character string constant. These are not the same and cannot be used interchangeably in C. For example, the integer constant 2 can be used in mathematical operations, such as addition and multiplication, while the string “2” cannot. The string “2” must be converted to an integer value before it can be used in such operations.

###### Role of sizeof Operator:

The sizeof operator in C is a unary operator that returns the size, in bytes, of a data type or a variable. It can be used to determine the memory requirements of a program, to allocate dynamic memory, and to determine the size of arrays and structures. The sizeof operator is particularly useful when writing code that is platform-independent, as it can be used to determine the size of data types that may vary depending on the hardware architecture.

Ternary operator can be nested. (True/False)
What do you mean by enumerated data type in C language?
What is the difference between char *p and char p[]?
What do you mean by function prototype?

Define Algorithm.
What do you mean by recursion?
What do you mean by program and program control?
What is a pointer?
What is the role of getc( ) and getw() file functions?
Programming needs logic building. Justify
Define Interpreter.

(a) Write the outputs of the following expression:
i) 50 % 2 / 3 + 2
ii) 21 / (int) 2.5 + 3
iii) (1 > 2 ) || ( 2 < 3) && 5 < 1

i) 50 % 2 / 3 + 2

The output of the expression is `2`.

ii) 21 / (int) 2.5 + 3

The output of the expression is `13`.

iii) (1 > 2 ) || ( 2 < 3) && 5 < 1

The output of the expression is `0`.

(b) Write a program to print Fibonacci series.e.g.0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13.

(c) Explain the working of various bit-wise operators with the example.

[OR] (c) List out all various string functions and describe them with syntax and
example.

(a) Explain ternary (?:) operator in detail with the example.

The ternary operator (also known as the conditional operator) in C is a shorthand way of writing an `if``else` statement.

The syntax for the ternary operator is as follows: `condition ? expression1 : expression2`.

If `condition` is true, the ternary operator evaluates to `expression1`, otherwise, it evaluates to `expression2`.

Here is an example of using the ternary operator to return the larger of two values:

```#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
int a = 5, b = 10;
int max = (a > b) ? a : b;
printf("The maximum value is: %d\n", max);
return 0;
}
```

(b) Discuss the need of break and continue statements with example.

(c) Design a flowchart for checking whether a given number is palindrome or not.

(a) What is meant by array of pointers? Explain it with example.

An array of pointers is a data structure in C where each element of the array is a pointer. The elements of the array can point to variables, functions, or any other data type.

Here is an example of declaring and initializing an array of pointers to integers:

``````#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
int a = 10, b = 20, c = 30;
int *ptr;
ptr = &a;
ptr = &b;
ptr = &c;
printf("Value of a: %d\n", *ptr);
printf("Value of b: %d\n", *ptr);
printf("Value of c: %d\n", *ptr);
return 0;
}
``````

In this example, `ptr` is declared as an array of 3 pointers to integers. The addresses of the variables `a`, `b`, and `c` are then stored in the elements of the array `ptr`. The values of `a`, `b`, and `c` can be accessed through the pointers stored in the array by dereferencing them using the `*` operator.

(b) Write a program to print the triangle shown below.
A
A B
A B C
A B C D

(c) Draw block diagram of computer system and explain the functions of each
component in detail.

(a) Explain type casting with example.

Type casting refers to converting a variable from one data type to another data type explicitly. This can be achieved using type casting operators. The type casting operator is written in the form of (type_name) expression.

For example, consider the following code:

``````float f = 10.5;
int i;
i = (int) f;
``````

Here, the value of `f` is 10.5 which is a float data type. We want to store it in an integer variable `i`. In order to do so, we use type casting operator `(int)` to convert `f` from float to integer. The result will be `i = 10`, the fractional part of the float value will be truncated.

(b) Compare and contrast goto statement and switch statement with example.

(c) Write a recursive program to find factorial of a given number.

(a) Differentiate function and macro.

(b) Explain while loop and do-while loop with example.

(c) Explain one dimensional array, two dimensional array and multi-dimensional
array with their syntax and example.

(a) Differentiate call by value and call by reference.

(b) Explain structure within structure with example.

(c) Explain error handling in file system with example.

(a) Define Union in ‘C’ with example.

A union in C is a data structure that allows you to store different data types in the same memory location. Unlike a structure, where each member has its own memory location, all members of a union share the same memory location. The size of a union is equal to the size of its largest member.

``````#include<stdio.h>

union number
{
int x;
float y;
char z;
};

int main()
{
union number num;
num.x = 10;
printf("The value of x is: %d\n", num.x);
num.y = 10.5;
printf("The value of y is: %f\n", num.y);
num.z = 'A';
printf("The value of z is: %c\n", num.z);
return 0;
}
``````

(b) Define dynamic memory allocation. Explain malloc() and calloc().

(c) Explain the following File Handling functions: 1. fseek( ) 2. ftell( ) 3. fread( )
fwrite( ) 5. fscanf( ) 6. fprintf( ) 7.rewind( )

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