# Material Science And Metallurgy GTU Paper Solution Winter 2021

Here, We provide MSM GTU Paper Solution Winter 2021. Read the Full Material Science And Metallurgy gtu paper solution given below.

(a) Differentiate between macro and micro examinations

(b) Define: (1) Toughness (2) Hardness (3) Hardenability (4) Malleability

(c) Discuss selection criteria for materials used in engineering applications.

(a) Explain a atomic packing factor

The atomic packing factor (APF) is a dimensionless quantity used to describe the arrangement of atoms in a crystalline solid.

It is defined as the fraction of the total volume of a unit cell occupied by its atoms. The APF provides a measure of the degree of close packing of the atoms in a crystalline solid and is an important factor in determining the properties of the material.

The APF is a fundamental property of a material and is determined by the crystal structure, the size and shape of the atoms, and the interatomic distances between the atoms.

For example, the APF of simple cubic structures is 0.52

(b) Calculate the APF for BCC and FCC structures.

(c) Discuss mechanisms of quenching of steel. State the advantages and drawbacks
of water & oil as quenching media.

[or] (c) Explain the different methods for Grain size measurement.

(a) What is phase diagram?

A phase diagram is a graphical representation of the conditions under which different phases of a material exist in equilibrium.

It provides information about the relationships between temperature, pressure, and composition for a particular system.

A phase diagram typically consists of a number of phase boundaries that separate the different phases and a critical point, which marks the conditions at which the material transitions from one phase to another.

The phase diagram provides a visual representation of the behavior of a material under different conditions and can be used to predict its properties and performance.

(b) Explain Lever rule.

(c) What is Gibbâ€™s phase rule? Define system, phase and degree of freedom. Show
that the degree of freedom at eutectic point in a binary phase diagram is zero.

(a) What is significance of soaking time provided in annealing or hardening?

The soaking time provided during annealing or hardening is a critical factor that determines the quality and performance of the final product. Soaking time refers to the amount of time that the metal is maintained at a constant temperature during a heat treatment process.

In annealing, the purpose of soaking is to ensure that the entire metal object is heated to a uniform temperature and held at that temperature for a sufficient amount of time to allow the grains of the metal to recrystallize and homogenize.

In hardening, the purpose of soaking is to ensure that the entire metal object is heated to the proper temperature for a sufficient amount of time to allow the metal to transform from a ferritic or austenitic structure to a martensitic structure.

(b) What is a eutectic, eutectoid and peritectic reaction.

(c) Draw iron- carbon diagram and mention all major elements.

(a) Write in brief: Hastelloy material

Hastelloy is a group of high-performance nickel-based alloys that have excellent resistance to corrosion and high-temperature oxidation.

They are used in a variety of industrial applications including chemical processing, nuclear reactors, and pollution control.

The unique composition of Hastelloy provides superior resistance to various forms of corrosion, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, and crevice corrosion.

(b) Give a few applications of copper alloys.

(c) Describe effect of quenching media on properties of steel during heat treatment.

(a) What is the main objectives of NDT method?

The main objectives of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods are:

1. To detect and locate surface and sub-surface defects, discontinuities, or other anomalies that could affect the performance or safety of a component or structure.
2. To determine the dimensions, thickness, or other physical properties of a component or structure without causing damage.
3. To evaluate the integrity, quality, and reliability of a component or structure, and ensure that it meets relevant standards and specifications.
4. To monitor the effects of corrosion, fatigue, and other forms of degradation over time and provide information on the remaining life and reliability of a component or structure.
5. To support predictive maintenance and extend the service life of components and structures.

(b) Explain briefly the two methods of finding carbon percentage in steels.

(c) Explain the effect of Grain size on the properties of metals.

(a) Explain cathodic protection against corrosion

Cathodic protection is a technique used to prevent corrosion of metal structures, such as pipelines, tanks, and ships, by making them the cathode of an electrochemical cell.

The principle of cathodic protection is based on the fact that corrosion is an electrochemical process that occurs when metal is oxidized to form metal ions. By applying a low voltage direct current (DC) to the metal structure, cathodic protection causes the metal to become the cathode, rather than the anode, in the electrochemical reaction.

This causes the flow of electrons to be directed away from the metal structure and towards a more easily oxidized material, such as a sacrificial anode or an impressed current source.

Cathodic protection can be a very effective way to prevent corrosion, but it must be designed, installed, and monitored carefully to ensure that it is working properly. Improper design or maintenance of cathodic protection systems can actually increase the rate of corrosion, rather than preventing it.

(b) Explain any one methods for production of metal powders.

(c) What is powder metallurgy? State the applications of powder metallurgy.

(a) Draw Jominy hardenability set-up including labeling & important dimensions.

(b) Explain difference between dry type and Wet type corrosion.

(c) Explain the NDT method widely used for inspection of castings.

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