Software Engineering Winter 2022 GTU Paper Solution | 3161605

Here, We provide Software Engineering GTU Paper Solution Winter 2022. Read the Full SE GTU paper solution given below.

Software Engineering GTU Old Paper Winter 2022 [Marks : 70] : Click Here

(a) Explain the process model which is used in situations where the user
requirements are not well understood.

The process model used in situations where user requirements are not well understood is commonly referred to as an iterative or incremental process model. This type of process model is well-suited for projects or situations where the requirements are unclear or constantly changing, and it allows for flexibility and adaptability throughout the development process. Here are the main characteristics of an iterative or incremental process model:

  1. Iterative Development: In this approach, the development process is broken down into multiple iterations or cycles, with each iteration producing a partial or incremental version of the final product. The iterations are designed to be short, typically lasting a few weeks, and they focus on developing a specific subset of functionality or addressing a particular aspect of the requirements.
  2. Feedback and Evaluation: At the end of each iteration, the developed product is evaluated, and feedback is gathered from users, stakeholders, or other relevant parties. This feedback is used to refine and improve the subsequent iterations, allowing for adjustments to be made based on the evolving understanding of user requirements.
  3. Incremental Delivery: With each iteration, a partial version of the product is delivered to the users or stakeholders, providing an opportunity for early feedback and validation of the product. This allows for continuous validation of requirements and helps to minimize the risk of developing a product that does not meet user needs.
  4. Flexible and Adaptive: The iterative or incremental process model allows for flexibility and adaptability, as requirements can change and evolve over time. The development team can incorporate new information or insights gained from user feedback into subsequent iterations, resulting in a product that better aligns with user needs.
  5. Collaboration and Communication: Communication and collaboration among team members, users, and stakeholders are critical in this process model. Frequent interaction and feedback loops ensure that requirements are clarified, and the development team and users are on the same page.
  6. Risk Management: The iterative or incremental process model provides opportunities for early identification and mitigation of risks. As each iteration is completed, risks can be evaluated, and appropriate measures can be taken to address them in subsequent iterations.
  7. Continuous Improvement: The iterative or incremental process model fosters a culture of continuous improvement, where the development team learns from each iteration and applies the knowledge gained to subsequent iterations. This allows for the refinement of requirements, design, and implementation throughout the development process.

(b) Draw the extreme programming process.

(c) Explain Software Engineering as a Layered Technology.

(a) Define Generalization. Explain with example.

In the context of computer programming and software engineering, generalization refers to the process of creating a more abstract, generalized, or reusable form of code or functionality from specific instances or examples. It involves extracting common features or behaviors from specific instances and creating a more generalized solution that can be used in a broader context.

For example, let’s consider a scenario where you are developing a software application to model different types of vehicles, such as cars, motorcycles, and buses. You may start by creating separate classes or objects for each specific type of vehicle with their own unique properties and behaviors. However, you may notice that these different types of vehicles share certain common properties, such as a make, model, and year of manufacture, as well as common behaviors, such as starting, stopping, and accelerating.

In this case, you could use the process of generalization to create a more abstract or generalized class or object that captures the common properties and behaviors of all types of vehicles, and then derive specific classes or objects for each type of vehicle that inherit or specialize from the generalized class. This generalized class could have attributes like “make”, “model”, “year”, and methods like “start()”, “stop()”, “accelerate()”, which can be shared and reused across different types of vehicles.

(b) Define feasibility study. Enlist and explain the contents to be included
in the feasibility study report.

(c) Explain Project Scheduling Process. Also Explain Gantt Chart in detail

(c) Describe CASE building block.

(a) Explain the different phases of Waterfall model.

The Waterfall model is a traditional software development model that follows a linear, sequential approach to software development. It consists of several distinct phases, each building upon the outputs of the previous phase. The different phases of the Waterfall model are as follows:

  1. Requirements Gathering: In this phase, software requirements are gathered from stakeholders, including end-users, customers, and other relevant parties. Requirements are documented in detail, including functional and non-functional requirements, and are approved by stakeholders before proceeding to the next phase.
  2. System Design: In this phase, the system’s overall design is created based on the gathered requirements. This includes defining the system architecture, identifying software components, creating data flow diagrams, creating user interface designs, and other system-level design activities.
  3. Implementation: In this phase, the software is developed based on the system design. The code is written, compiled, and tested, and the software components are integrated to create the final product. This phase involves programming, debugging, and unit testing of the software.
  4. Testing: In this phase, the software is thoroughly tested to identify defects or issues. This includes functional testing, performance testing, security testing, and other types of testing as per the requirements. Defects are reported, fixed, and retested until the software is deemed acceptable and ready for deployment.
  5. Deployment: In this phase, the software is deployed in the production environment and made available for end-users. This includes installation, configuration, and setup of the software in the target environment.
  6. Maintenance: After deployment, the software is monitored and maintained to address any issues that arise in the production environment. This includes bug fixes, performance optimizations, and other maintenance activities to ensure the software remains functional and meets the evolving needs of the users.

(b) Explain steps involved during the prototyping

(c) Explain Functional Requirement and Non-Functional Requirement
with example.


(a) Distinguish between verification and validation

Verification: Verification is the process of evaluating the software system or component during or after the development phase to determine if it meets the specified requirements. It involves checking whether the software is designed and implemented correctly, and whether it adheres to the specified design standards, guidelines, and conventions. Verification focuses on the internal consistency and correctness of the software system, without considering its actual functionality.

Examples of verification activities:

  • Reviewing and inspecting software design documents to ensure they meet the specified requirements.
  • Reviewing and analyzing the source code to ensure it follows coding standards and conventions.
  • Performing static analysis of the software to identify potential issues, such as syntax errors or logical inconsistencies.
  • Conducting walkthroughs and inspections to identify and fix defects in the software.

Validation: Validation is the process of evaluating the software system or component during or after the development phase to determine if it satisfies the specified requirements for its intended use. It involves checking whether the software performs as expected in its intended environment and whether it meets the needs and expectations of the end-users. Validation focuses on the external behavior and functionality of the software system.

Examples of validation activities:

  • Conducting functional testing to verify that the software system meets the specified functional requirements.
  • Performing performance testing to validate that the software system meets the specified performance requirements.
  • Conducting usability testing to validate that the software system is easy to use and meets the needs of its intended users.
  • Conducting security testing to validate that the software system meets the specified security requirements.

(b) Differentiate Software Engineering and Reverse Engineering.

(c) Write a short note on formal technical review.

(a) Explain 4 P’s of effective Project Management in detail.

The 4 P’s of effective project management refer to the four key elements that are essential for successful project management. They are:

  1. People: People are the most valuable resource in any project. Effective project management requires a skilled and motivated team that is capable of working collaboratively to achieve project goals. It involves assembling the right team members, defining roles and responsibilities, and ensuring that the team has the necessary skills, knowledge, and resources to complete the project successfully. Good communication, team collaboration, and leadership are critical for managing the people aspect of a project.
  2. Process: Process refers to the set of established procedures, methods, and techniques that are used to manage a project from initiation to closure. An effective project management process provides a structured framework for planning, executing, controlling, and closing projects. It includes activities such as defining project objectives, developing a project plan, assigning tasks, tracking progress, managing risks, and ensuring quality. A well-defined and documented project management process helps ensure that the project is executed in a systematic and organized manner, leading to higher chances of success.
  3. Product: Product refers to the deliverables or outcomes of the project. It includes the end result or the desired outcome that the project aims to achieve. An effective project management approach involves clearly defining the product requirements, setting realistic expectations, and managing changes to the product scope throughout the project lifecycle. It also involves monitoring and controlling the quality of the product to ensure that it meets the defined requirements and satisfies customer expectations.
  4. Project: Project environment refers to the external factors and constraints that can impact the success of a project. This includes factors such as organizational culture, project stakeholders, regulatory requirements, market conditions, and technological constraints. An effective project manager must be aware of the project environment and adapt the project management approach accordingly. This may involve building relationships with stakeholders, managing risks, addressing regulatory compliance, and keeping up with technological advancements that may affect the project.

(b) What is the importance of User Interface? Explain User Interface
design rules

(c) Explain Black box testing and White box testing. Discuss all the testing
strategies that are available.


(a) Explain Version and Change Control Management.

Version Control and Change Control Management are two important aspects of software configuration management, which help in managing changes and maintaining the integrity of software throughout its lifecycle.

  1. Version Control: Version Control, also known as Source Control or Revision Control, is the process of managing changes to software source code or other files, enabling multiple developers to work on the same codebase simultaneously without conflicts. It provides a systematic way to track and manage changes made to software files, allowing developers to collaborate, revert to previous versions, and maintain a complete history of changes.

Version Control typically involves the use of a version control system (VCS) that provides features such as version tracking, branching, merging, and conflict resolution. There are two main types of version control:

  • Centralized Version Control: In centralized version control, there is a single repository that stores the master copy of the code, and developers check out and check in changes to this central repository. Examples of centralized version control systems include Apache Subversion (SVN) and Microsoft Team Foundation Server (TFS).
  • Distributed Version Control: In distributed version control, each developer has a local copy of the entire repository, including the complete history of changes. Developers can commit changes to their local repository and then push those changes to a shared repository to synchronize with other developers. Examples of distributed version control systems include Git, Mercurial, and Bazaar.
  1. Change Control Management: Change Control Management, also known as Change Management, is the process of managing changes to software or system configurations in a controlled and systematic manner to minimize risks, ensure quality, and maintain stability. It involves the identification, evaluation, prioritization, approval, implementation, and verification of changes to software or systems, while maintaining proper documentation and communication.

Change Control Management typically follows a predefined set of steps or a formal process, including:

  • Change Request: A change request is initiated by identifying a need for a change in the software or system configuration. It includes details such as the nature of the change, reasons for the change, impact analysis, and proposed solutions.
  • Evaluation and Prioritization: Change requests are evaluated based on their impact, risks, benefits, and alignment with business objectives. They are prioritized according to their urgency and importance.
  • Approval: Change requests are reviewed and approved by relevant stakeholders, such as project managers, product owners, or change control boards, based on established criteria and policies.
  • Implementation: Approved changes are implemented by following proper procedures and guidelines, including development, testing, and deployment activities.
  • Verification and Testing: Implemented changes are verified and tested to ensure that they have been properly implemented and have not introduced any unintended consequences or defects.
  • Documentation and Communication: All changes, including their details, results, and documentation, are properly recorded and communicated to relevant stakeholders for reference and future audits.

(b) Explain Agile model

(c) List and explain different types of testing done during testing phase.

(a) Draw E-R Diagram for Online shopping System


  1. Customer: Represents the customers who use the online shopping system. It may have attributes like customer ID, name, email, contact number, address, etc.
  2. Product: Represents the products available for purchase in the online shopping system. It may have attributes like product ID, name, description, price, quantity, etc.
  3. Order: Represents the orders placed by customers. It may have attributes like order ID, date/time of order, total cost, etc.


  1. Customer-Product: Represents the relationship between customers and the products they have purchased. It may have attributes like purchase date, quantity, etc. This is a many-to-many relationship as a customer can purchase multiple products, and a product can be purchased by multiple customers.
  2. Customer-Order: Represents the relationship between customers and their orders. This is a one-to-many relationship as a customer can place multiple orders, but an order can only be associated with one customer.
  3. Product-Order: Represents the relationship between products and orders. This is a many-to-many relationship as an order can have multiple products, and a product can be associated with multiple orders. It may have attributes like quantity, price at the time of purchase, etc.

(b) What is architectural design? Enlist different style and patterns of

(c) Explain concept of Test Case


(a) What is Cyclomatic Complexity?

Cyclomatic complexity is a quantitative measure of the complexity of a software program’s control flow. It is a software metric that helps in assessing the complexity of a program based on the number of independent paths that can be executed in a program. It was developed by Thomas J. McCabe in 1976 and is widely used in software engineering to measure the complexity of software systems, particularly in the context of testing and quality assurance.

Cyclomatic complexity is calculated based on the number of decision points, such as conditional statements (if, switch), loop statements (for, while), and other control flow statements, in a software program. It represents the minimum number of linearly independent paths through the program, which means the minimum number of unique paths that need to be tested to achieve full coverage of the program’s control flow.

The formula to calculate cyclomatic complexity is:

V(G) = E – N + 2


  • V(G) is the cyclomatic complexity
  • E is the number of edges (i.e., control flow branches) in the program
  • N is the number of nodes (i.e., decision points) in the program

Cyclomatic complexity provides a quantitative measure of how complex a software program’s control flow is. Higher cyclomatic complexity values indicate more complex programs with more decision points and control flow branches, which may require more thorough testing to achieve adequate test coverage. Lower cyclomatic complexity values indicate simpler programs with fewer decision points and control flow branches, which may require less testing effort.

(b) Briefly Explain: Requirement Elicitation

(c) Explain Risk Management. Explain RMMM plan

“Do you have the answer to any of the questions provided on our website? If so, please let us know by providing the question number and your answer in the space provided below. We appreciate your contributions to helping other students succeed.”