Here, We provide WP GTU Paper Solution Winter 2022. Read the Full Web Programming gtu paper solution 3170713 given below.
Web Programming GTU Old Paper Winter 2022 [Marks : 70] : Click Here
(a) List and explain the website design principles.
There are several website design principles that help create a visually appealing and user-friendly website. Here are some of the most important ones:
- Simplicity: The website design should be simple and easy to navigate. It should not be cluttered with too many elements or features that may confuse the users.
- Consistency: The website design should be consistent across all pages and elements. This includes the use of the same font, colors, and layout.
- Typography: The typography of a website should be easy to read and visually appealing. This includes the font style, size, and color.
- Color: The color scheme of a website should be consistent and visually appealing. It should also be chosen based on the brand and the target audience.
- White Space: The use of white space or negative space is important in website design. This refers to the empty space between elements and helps to create a clean and uncluttered design.
(b) Write a difference between following
a) HTML and XHTML
b) Client-side scripting and Server-side scripting
- HTML vs XHTML
|Syntax||More forgiving||Strictly follows XML syntax|
|Elements||Fewer elements||More elements|
|Tags and Attributes||Not all tags and attributes need to be closed or quoted||All tags and attributes must be closed and quoted|
|Case Sensitivity||Tags and attributes are not case sensitive||Tags and attributes are case sensitive|
|Error Handling||Tolerates errors and still renders the page||Does not tolerate errors and will not render the page if errors exist|
2) Client-Side Scripting vs Server-Side Scripting
|Aspect||Client-Side Scripting||Server-Side Scripting|
|Interpretation||Interpreted by the client browser||Interpreted by the web server|
|Execution||Runs on the client computer||Runs on the web server|
|Access to Resources||Limited capabilities||Can access server resources and databases|
|Security||Can be vulnerable to attacks||Better security as code is not exposed to users|
|Performance||Faster due to running on the client||Slower due to round-trips to the server|
(c) What is navigation? Discuss the characteristics of effective navigation. Also write code of html page to open a link in a new browser window.
Navigation refers to the menus, links, and other elements on a website that enable users to move between pages and sections of the site. Effective navigation is essential for providing a positive user experience and helping users find the information they are looking for. Some characteristics of effective navigation include:
- Clarity: Navigation should be clear and easy to understand, with labels that accurately reflect the content they link to.
- Consistency: Navigation should be consistent throughout the site, with the same menu structure and layout used on all pages.
- Accessibility: Navigation should be accessible and easy to use, with buttons and links large enough to click on and clearly visible on all devices.
- Simplicity: Navigation should be simple and easy to use, with only the most important links and menu items included.
- Speed: Navigation should be fast and responsive, with pages loading quickly and menu items appearing immediately when clicked.
To open a link in a new browser window using HTML, you can use the
target attribute of the
a element. Here’s an example:
(a) What are the key components of XML?
XML (Extensible Markup Language) has the following key components:
- Tags: Tags are the most basic component of XML and define the structure and meaning of the data within an XML document. There are two types of tags in XML: start tags and end tags.
- Elements: Elements are made up of tags and the data they contain. Each element has a start tag, an end tag, and the data or other elements between them.
- Attributes: Attributes are used to provide additional information about an element. They are added to the start tag of an element and consist of a name and a value.
- Document Type Definition (DTD): A DTD is an optional component of an XML document that defines the structure and constraints of the data. It specifies the elements and attributes that are allowed in the document and their relationships to each other.
- XML Schema: An XML schema is another optional component of an XML document that provides a more powerful and flexible way of defining the structure and constraints of the data. It allows for more complex data types and constraints than a DTD.
- Namespaces: Namespaces are used to avoid naming conflicts between different XML vocabularies used within the same document. They allow for the use of the same element or attribute names in different contexts.
(b) Explain with example frames in HTML.
Frames in HTML allow multiple HTML documents to be displayed simultaneously within a single web page. Each frame can contain its own HTML document and can be independently scrolled, resized, and reloaded. Frames are defined using the
<iframe> elements in HTML.
Here is an example of using the
<frame> element to define a set of frames within an HTML page:
(c) Explain different ways to write the CSS with example.
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) is a language used to describe the presentation of HTML and other structured documents. There are several ways to write CSS in HTML, including:
Inline CSS: Inline CSS is written directly within an HTML tag using the
style attribute. This method is useful for applying a specific style to a single element.
Internal CSS: Internal CSS is written in the
<head> section of an HTML document using the
<style> element. This method is useful for applying styles to multiple elements on a single page.
External CSS: External CSS is written in a separate CSS file and linked to an HTML document using the
<link> element in the
<head> section. This method is useful for applying styles across multiple pages on a website.
(c) Write an HTML snippet with CSS for following effects
1. link: after visited red color and before visited green color
2. table with even rows black and odd rows green color.
3. Text color-green, Text case-uppercase
Link: After Visited Red Color and Before Visited Green Color
Table with even rows black and odd rows green color.
Text color-green, Text case-uppercase
(a) State full form of following acronym. (1) DOM (2) XSL (3) DTD (4) HTTP (5) PHP (6) XML
- DOM – Document Object Model
- XSL – Extensible Stylesheet Language
- DTD – Document Type Definition
- HTTP – Hypertext Transfer Protocol
- PHP – Hypertext Preprocessor
- XML – Extensible Markup Language
(b) Explain meta tag? How it is useful by search engine?
In HTML, a meta tag is used to provide metadata about the HTML document, such as the character set used, keywords that describe the page content, author information, and other information that may be useful to search engines and other web services.
Here is an example of a meta tag:
In this example, the “keywords” meta tag is used to specify a comma-separated list of keywords that describe the content of the web page.
Search engines use meta tags to help index and classify web pages. By including relevant keywords and metadata in the meta tags, webmasters can help ensure that their pages are more easily discovered and ranked by search engines.
In addition to the “keywords” meta tag, other commonly used meta tags include:
- “description”: A brief description of the page content.
- “author”: The name of the author of the page.
- “viewport”: A set of values that control the viewport settings of the page on mobile devices.
- “robots”: A set of values that control how search engines should index and follow links on the page.
(a) What are web services? Explain role of SOAP in Web services.
Web services are a technology used to allow different applications to communicate with each other over a network, such as the internet. They are typically implemented using standard protocols and data formats, and allow applications to exchange data and functionality in a standardized, platform-independent way.
The role of SOAP in web services is to provide a standard way of exchanging data between different applications, regardless of the underlying technology or platform. It defines a common message format, encoding rules, and communication protocol that can be used by any application that supports SOAP. This makes it possible for applications to communicate with each other over the internet, even if they are running on different operating systems, written in different programming languages, or using different databases.
(b) What is FTP? Demonstrate functionality of various FTP commands in
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a standard protocol used to transfer files between computers over a network, such as the internet. It is commonly used for uploading and downloading files from a remote server.
There are several FTP commands available that allow users to interact with remote servers and transfer files. Some of the most commonly used FTP commands include:
- USER: This command is used to provide the username to the server.
- PASS: This command is used to provide the password to the server.
- PWD: This command is used to print the current working directory on the server.
- CWD: This command is used to change the current working directory on the server.
- LIST: This command is used to list the contents of the current directory on the server.
- RETR: This command is used to retrieve a file from the server.
- STOR: This command is used to store a file on the server.
- DELE: This command is used to delete a file on the server.
- MKD: This command is used to create a new directory on the server.
- RMD: This command is used to remove a directory on the server.
- QUIT: This command is used to disconnect from the server.
(c) Write a PHP script to open, close, read and write into a file.
(a) Differentiate synchronous and Asynchronous web programming
|ASynchronous Programming||Synchronous Programming|
|Execution Flow||Blocks until task is completed||Continues to execute while task is running|
|Performance||Slower performance due to blocking||Faster performance due to non-blocking|
|User Experience||May cause delays and unresponsive UI||Provides better user experience|
|Error Handling||Errors can interrupt the entire process||Errors can be isolated and handled gracefully|
|Coding Complexity||Code can be easier to read and understand||Code can be more complex and difficult to follow|
|Examples||Traditional HTML forms, page reloads, and server-side rendering||AJAX, WebSocket, and client-side rendering using frameworks like React or Vue|
(b) Explain the use of following arrays in PHP. 1) $_REQUEST [ ] 2) $_SERVER [ ]
- $_REQUEST: This array in PHP is a superglobal variable that contains the values of both
$_REQUESTarray is used to retrieve data sent to the server through either GET or POST method.
For example, if a form is submitted with method POST, the values submitted by the form can be accessed using the $_REQUEST array. Similarly, if the form is submitted with method GET, the values can also be accessed using the same array.
Here’s an example of how to use the $_REQUEST array:
- $_SERVER: The
$_SERVERarray in PHP is a superglobal variable that contains information about the server environment and the current script. This array provides various information such as headers, paths, and script locations. It can be used to access server variables and server-specific information that is not available through other variables.
Here are some examples of how to use the $_SERVER array:
(c) Write a Java Script to read data from XML File and print it in tabular manner
XML file (example.xml):
(b) Explain in brief about XSL and XSLT with example.
XSL (Extensible Stylesheet Language) and XSLT (XSL Transformations) are markup languages used to transform XML documents into other formats, such as HTML or PDF.
XSLT is a subset of XSL that is used specifically for transforming XML documents. It is a declarative language that uses XPath expressions to select and manipulate XML elements and attributes. XSLT templates are used to specify how the XML should be transformed into the desired output format.
Here is an example of an XSLT stylesheet that transforms an XML document into an HTML table:
XML document (example.xml):
XSLT stylesheet (example.xsl):
(c) Develop a web application code using PHP, HTML and MySQL for Students that stores student’s enrolment no., name, semester, gender, qualification, etc. in database. Create proper GUI including buttons that run separate .php file for each database operation like insert, update, delete etc.
(a) Explain Following XSL i) Value-of ii) Sort
value-of is a commonly used XSLT instruction that is used to extract the value of a selected node or nodes from the input XML document and include it in the output result tree. This instruction can be used to extract text or attribute values from XML elements and attributes.
sort is another commonly used XSLT instruction that is used to sort the selected nodes based on their attribute or element values. This instruction can be used to sort nodes in ascending or descending order based on their values.
(b) Explain database connectivity in PHP with example.
Database connectivity is an important aspect of PHP programming, as it enables PHP scripts to communicate with a database and perform various database-related operations like inserting data, updating data, deleting data, and retrieving data.
To connect to a database using PHP, we use the following steps:
- Create a database connection – This involves establishing a connection to the database server using a set of credentials like hostname, username, password, and database name. In PHP, we use the
mysqli_connect()function to create a database connection.
- Execute SQL queries – After establishing the database connection, we can execute SQL queries to perform various database operations like inserting, updating, deleting, or retrieving data from the database. In PHP, we use the
mysqli_query()function to execute SQL queries.
- Handle errors – It is important to handle errors that may occur while connecting to the database or executing SQL queries. In PHP, we use the
mysqli_error()function to display error messages.
Here is an example of database connectivity in PHP:
(c) What is query string? How is it transmitted to the server with the GET and POST methods?
A query string is a part of a URL that contains data that is to be sent to the server along with the HTTP request. It is used to pass data between the client and server, typically to retrieve or manipulate data on the server
The query string consists of a question mark followed by a set of key-value pairs separated by ampersands. For example, in the URL
http://example.com/search.php?q=apple&category=fruits, the query string is
In PHP, the query string can be accessed using the
$_GET superglobal array. When a form is submitted using the GET method, the form data is appended to the URL as a query string. For example, if a form with two fields “username” and “password” is submitted using the GET method, the resulting URL might look like this:
http://example.com/login.php?username=john&password=secret. The form data can then be accessed in PHP using the
$_GET superglobal array as follows:
When a form is submitted using the POST method, the form data is transmitted in the HTTP request body, rather than as part of the URL. The form data can be accessed in PHP using the
$_POST superglobal array as follows:
(a) What PHP can do with header () function?
header() function in PHP is used to send HTTP headers to the client browser. It allows PHP scripts to send additional information along with the HTML output, such as setting cookies, redirecting the user to a new page, and controlling browser caching.
Here are some common uses of the
header() function in PHP:
- Set the Content-Type header to specify the type of data being sent (e.g. text/html, application/json, image/png).
- Set the Location header to redirect the user to a new page.
- Set the Expires header to control browser caching.
- Set cookies using the Set-Cookie header
(c) Explain PHP? How can you connect to database in PHP? Show the simple database operation using PHP with proper example.
PHP is a server-side scripting language that is commonly used for web development. It is often used in combination with databases to create dynamic web applications.
To connect to a database in PHP, you can use the built-in
mysqli extension or
PDO (PHP Data Objects) extension. Here’s an example of connecting to a MySQL database using the
Here’s an example of performing a simple database operation using PHP:
This code connects to a database using
mysqli, and then inserts a new record into a
students table. If the operation is successful, it outputs a message indicating that a new record was created. Otherwise, it outputs an error message.
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